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3). The difference in the total cumulative listings in each period is significant between developed and developing countries (X2?=?19.02; d.f?=?1; P?Selleck Sorafenib i.e. conservationists and scientists in developing countries, while citizen groups, local land-owners, social organisations and local councillors are frequently more prevalent in developed countries. Recognising that a BR's establishment may be motivated by different desires, values and/or expectations will be useful in future BR-stakeholder relations (see Bouamrane, 2007 for case studies across different socio-ecological contexts; see also Sections IV.2 and IV.3). As of 2012, 65.7% of the listed BRs have been established in emerging and developing countries (Fig. 4). The remaining 34% of BRs are located in advanced-economy countries, with the majority (61.2%) of this portion www.selleckchem.com established pre-Seville. The linking of development with conservation is not unique to the BR concept. While the Seville Strategy may have reorganised the ideals of the MAB so that ��people-centred conservation and sustainable development�� became a priority criterion, Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs) had already begun to attempt this a decade previously. The first ICDPs were launched in 1985 by the Wildlands and Human Needs Program (WWF) as a mechanism to integrate economic development with I-BET-762 sustainable natural resource management, targeted specifically at the ��rural poor�� (Hughes & Flintan, 2001). Today's working definition of these original ICDPs may have evolved somewhat, but contemporary versions (i.e. the ��new conservation��) remain primarily biodiversity conservation projects that combine social development (and enhanced livelihood options) with environmental protection (Hughes & Flintan, 2001). The history of ICDPs has been one of elusive success, with the literature indicating that they have failed their promise, i.e. ��conservation by distraction�� (Ferraro & Simpson, 2000). Confusion over objectives, vague assumptions, na?ve expectations and a failure to acknowledge trade-off between conservation and development priorities have led to significant criticism of the concept by social scientists and ecologists alike (reviewed in Hughes & Flintan, 2001; Robinson & Redford, 2004; McShane et al., 2011).